## Notes from October 21, 2014

If Earth were all aluminum, it would have 3.5 x 10^{51}protons and neutrons.

Total baryon volume V2 = 1.4 x 10

^{7}meters cubed

Total baryon area A2 = 4.5 x 10

^{22}sq meters

Notes from December 12, 2014:

The Universal Constant of Conservation of Hadronic Continuum

Tau = 5.5 nanoseconds

Details of Atoms

The quantum gravity effects of atoms on the space-time continuum (Herenowium) are attributed to quarks and electrons. But only hadrons will be considered in this essay.

Sum of hadron shell volumes for Earth 1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters

Sum of hadron shell areas for Earth 4.5 x 10^22 square meters

The shrinking space makes a gradient and the growing time puts a second gradient into the comet's frame of reference. Those two gradients cause diffusion of Herenowium with a power of two in its formula. A comet is in free fall relative to the Herenowium and it accelerates if the local Herenowium accelerates.

Details of Herenowium

According to this proposal, protons, neutrons, and electrons have gravity because they shrink space and grow time. How much shrinkage and growth occurs was not known yesterday (December 10, 2014), but a first calculation is done today to propose some formulae and values. This calculation will use the following placeholder values:

Each hadron shrinks the surrounding space by a fraction of a proton volume every time period t1. The fraction is called f.

As a first guess use t1 as much longer than a Planck time:

t1 = 5.5 x 10^-9 sec

f = 1

t1 was chosen as 5.5 nanoseconds so a mass that is released from 300 km above Earth will cross a distance of 5 meters in 1 second by diffusion of space-time continuum.

Time is advancing as we experience it. This t1 can be set to any value

to adjust the gravity result, but people always experience time as it seems today. Time is growing from atoms.

Background Calculations

Earth’s number of protons and neutrons is 3.5 x 10^51 (Aluminum)

Proton radius 10^-15 meters

Proton volume 4 x 10^-45 cubic meters

Sum of proton shell areas for Earth 4.5 x 10^22 square meters

**Sum of proton shell volumes for Earth 1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters**

Meteor shell volume while falling one second is calculated here:

Distance fallen in 1 second is 5 meters

Volume of top orbit: (6451005 meters)^3 x 4pi/3 = V1

Volume of bottom.... (6451000 meters)^3 x 4pi/3 = V2

V1 - V2 = shell volume used by meteor in one second

V1 = 41615465510025 x 6451005 x 4.19

V1 = 1124854003785670077273

V2 = 1124851388255690000000

V1-V2 = 2,615,529,980,077,273 cubic meters

**V1 - V2 = 2.615 *10^15 cubic meters**

Ratio B of shell volumes, proton over meteor shell volumes

B = (1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters)/(2.615 *10^15 cubic meters per second)

**B = 5.5 nanoseconds**

Discussion

This work is still in progress, but here is a rough draft. This theory is used to evaluate a diffusion model of gravity starting with this action:

Every 5.5 nanoseconds, the space around each hadron shrinks by a hadron volume as time grows by 5.5 nanoseconds.

The Earth's hadrons consume Herenowium and a nearby comet will accelerate at the expected rate. A far comet will have less acceleration. Each comet is in free fall relative to the local Herenowium.

The diffusion occurs as in Fick's Law. A gradient in space density is caused by atoms shrinking space. A gradient in time density happens because time is growing from atoms. Time is densest near atoms, and less dense far away. Those two density gradients cause a flux of Herenowium to accelerate. The power of two in the gravitational force equation is due to the two diffusion effects as time grows and as space shrinks.

Here is a calculation showing a case where hadron processing of spacetime produces a result that is equal to that provided by the acceleration of a mass above the Earth:

(1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters)/5.5 nanoseconds = (2.615 *10^15 cubic meters per second)

As a first guess use t1 as much longer than a Planck time:

t1 = 5.5 x 10^-9 sec

f = 1

Time is advancing as we experience it. This t1 can be set to any value

Background Calculations

Earth’s number of protons and neutrons is 3.5 x 10^51 (Aluminum)

Proton radius 10^-15 meters

Proton volume 4 x 10^-45 cubic meters

Sum of proton shell areas for Earth 4.5 x 10^22 square meters

Sum of proton shell volumes for Earth 1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters

Meteor shell volume while falling one second is calculated here:

Distance fallen in 1 second is 5 meters

Volume of top orbit: (6451005 meters)^3 x 4pi/3 = V1

Volume of bottom.... (6451000 meters)^3 x 4pi/3 = V2

V1 - V2 = shell volume used by meteor in one second

V1 = 41615465510025 x 6451005 x 4.19

V1 = 1124854003785670077273

V2 = 1124851388255690000000

V1-V2 = 2,615,529,980,077,273 cubic meters

V1 - V2 = 2.615 *10^15 cubic meters

Ratio B of shell volumes, proton over meteor shell volumes

B = (1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters)/(2.615 *10^15 cubic meters per second)

B = 5.5 nanoseconds

Discussion

The Earth's hadrons consume Herenowium and a nearby comet will accelerate at the expected rate. A far comet will have less acceleration. Each comet is in free fall relative to the local Herenowium.

End of December 12 2014 essay

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The old essay can have more accurate values to prove that 4.4ns is better a estimate than 5.5ns, if that is the case. And error bars and tolerance statements and precision expectations will be posted.

Added note of September 2, 2016

The momentum V/tau = p is more fundamental than tau. Tau depends on the proton radius. p is the momentum of free space for each baryon:

p = 7.000*10^-37 meter^3 / second

## Discovery in 2017

The shape of the iron nucleus was discovered to be a pyramidal cube.

On May 25, 2017 the answer to the old question was found:

Iron is magnetic because its nucleus has two loops of protons that are coaxial.

Each loop has twelve protons in a ring shaped string. A new periodic table was made from that theory.

**November 10, 2017 Alan Folmsbee**

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