Periodic Table of Units

Tables on this page:

Gravity Continuum Periodic Table of Units of Measure
Electricity Continuum
Maxwell and Boltzmann Symbols
Duplicated Powers of Dimensions

Essays on this page:

Primitive Dimensional Analysis
Planck's Constant Derived from Gravity
Define Aspects
Define Periodic Table of Units of Measure
Aspects of physics with duplicate units
The First Law of Diffusion of Herenowium and the Second, etc.

Gravity Continuum Periodic Table of Units of Measure

sec1 second0 second -1 sec -2 sec-3 sec-4
meter(-3) confinement
meter(-1) thermal resistivitymass densitymass density current
meter0 timeshapefrequency Navier-Stokes
meter1 lengthviscosity acceleration power density


diffusion coefficient Temperature
meter3 graviticspansive conserved fluidspacemomentum force T3/2
meter4 energy powervife
meter6 (KT)3/2

Electricity Continuum

second2 second1 second0 sec -1 sec -2 sec-3
meter(-1)permittivity conductivitypermeability
meter0Farad mobilityHenryTesla and Ohm
meter1 photon detached fluidneutrino isospin fluidmagnetic field electric field
meter2 electron spins' fluid


Weber and AmpereVolt
meter3 proton conserved fluiddipolemomentricity Newton
meter4 quadrupolePlanckConstJouleWatt

The white squares hold the neutron's internal dimensional fluids. The Gravity Continuum has 4 dimensions that are relative to matter (x y z t). The Electricity Continuum has 4 more dimensions that are relative to The Gravity Continuum (qx qy qz qt). The mass and charge units of measure are square meters of continuum fluid. Temperature has units like voltage, but in the Gravity Continuum. Boltzmann's Constant K is 1.38 * 10^-23 meter^2 for scaling an effective range for thermal velocities of particles.

The duplicated units of Weber and Ampere have vector and scalar aspects, so they are different. The Weber uses 3 of the 8 primitive dimensions for pairing electrons with protons (qx qy qt). The Ampere unit is for a gas theory of electron charges that are paired to proton charges.

The units for the Saha Equation for ionization are shown as T3/2 and with (KT)3/2. The T is for Temperature in Kelvin and K is for Boltzmann's Constant.

The units of measure for Continuum Science have not been approved by The International Bureau of Weights and Measures ( Read the derivations in The Trilogy of Theoretical Physics, or in my notebooks.

Volume I: The Strength of Gravity vs. Charge, March, 2015
Volume II: Graviticspansion and Momentricity, 2016
Volume III: Fusion Electrical Generators, 2017
Alan Folmsbee, March 27, 2015 to November 28, 2015, Wailuku, Hawaii, USA

The following are supplemental tables for special interest groups:

Maxwell and Boltzmann Symbols

second2 second1 second0 sec -1 sec -2 sec -3
meter -1











meter2 K


meter3 f
meter4 KT P


second2 second1 second0 sec -1 sec -2 sec -3
meter -1











GNewton kCoulomb






C0 = capensity of free space, the Law of Gravity
C0 = 5.131534*10-9 second2
a0 is 0.53 Angstrom, Bohr Radius of an atom
τ is 5.131534*10-9 seconds for conservation of continuum during the proton volume space change for gravity
Z0 is the characteristic impedance of a vacuum, 377 ohms
Vproton is a new quantum number for volume based on a radius of 0.95fm

Planck's Constant Derived from Gravity

Here is the new formula for Planck's Constant h :

h = 4 π (V/τ )*(m/q)*(k/G)* a0

m is proton mass

k = Coulomb's constant

a0 = .53 Angstrom, Bohr radius

V is proton volume = 3.59 x 10^-45 meter^3

q is proton charge

τ is 5.043655 nanoseconds, The Universal Constant for the Conservation of Graviticspansive Continuum

G is Newton's big G, The Universal Gravitational Constant

Run the numbers. Planck's Constant is derived from gravity using the magnetic moment μ as the angular momentum. The next formula was used:

μ = q h / (4 π me) is the "magneton"


me is electron mass
The momentum of graviticspansion is V / τ for each proton and neutron.

Gravity and the expansion of the universe are one part of the proton process, which is related to h.

Alan Folmsbee, December 5, 2015

Duplicated Powers of Dimensions

second1 second0 sec(-1) sec(-2) sec(-3)
meter(-1) chargeDensity permeability
meter0 Inductance Shape magneticFluxDensity frequency resistance
meter1 c viscosity magneticField thermalConductivity G pressure ke acceleration electricField energyDensity
meter2 KBoltzmann gram charge entropy Amp Weber DiffusionCoefficient expansionViscosity vectorPotential Temperature Voltage
meter3 mv xyz/t momentum momentricity forceGravi forceElec forceAccel
meter4 hν qV KT mv2

These units that have the same primitive dimensions in space and time are all explained in The Trilogy Of Theoretical Physics. They are unique units because of vector versus scaler considerations and because of the Electricity Continuum being relative to the Gravity Continuum. The two continua are called "differentiating aethers". Some units can be duplicated in their primitive dimensions when the same geometrical ratios are involved in formulae.
November 17, 2015
Alan Folmsbee

Primitive Dimensional Analysis

The primitive dimensions are time and space. Meters and seconds. The 4D continuum has x, y, z, and t as primitive dimensions. Composite units include energy and mass. A composite unit can be set equal to its primitive factors using only powers of meters and seconds. There is an advantage to using the primitive dimensions sometimes. The formulas for physics with the same primitive units can be compared for theoretical parallels.

Definition of Aspects of the Primitives

The foundation of physics is laid on matter, meters and seconds. Old Science did not have that, they had Planck’s Constant, mass, The Big G, and temperature “degrees”. Those are composite units. A new breakthrough has shown that mass is the area aspect of continuum fluid. Area has two factors for units: meters times meters. Every power of primitive dimensions is a unique perspective on reality and that is called the aspect. Aspects can be numbered by powers of dimensions: (2,0) can be for area = me^2 * sec^0.

Definition of Periodic Table of Units of Measure

The table has the time on the horizontal axis and space on the vertical axis. It is an array using integer powers of seconds and meters on those two axes. Each entry is an aspect of physics. The aspects have exponents on meters and seconds from (-3,2) to (6,-3). Each Periodic Table can be customized to show a category of composite units in the array of primitive dimensions.

The Slope Analysis of the Periodic Tables shows a diagonal slope. The units of physics are clustered around a slope on the Gravity Continuum table where time is an equal of space, even as powers are applied as exponents. But in the Electricity Continuum, the slope is only half as steep. The Table for Maxwell Symbols shows that slope on the bold symbols. This seems consistent with the paired electron-proton dimensions, which only use 2 space dimensions.

Duplicated Units for Each Power of Primitive Dimensions

There are eleven squares in the Periodic Table of Units of Measure that contain several units. That means there are duplicated primitive units assigned to several units of measure, like speed, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. It is a good feature of the Periodic Tables here to show Duplicate Units all collected into one aspect. It is not a weakness of the "mass=area" theory that makes those duplications. It is a feature that is expected to highlight the geometric nature of physics. For example, the inverse square law needs some explanations using illustrations that are intuitively pleasing.

The table uses meters and seconds to show the factors of composite units like mass. Once mass was understood, the rest of the units were reformulated, beginning with force. Force does not need to involve a kilogram in its primitive dimensions. These duplicate units are listed here as powers of meters and seconds. Each duplicate unit is assigned a descriptive title.

meter^-1 * second^0 Magnetic Aspect
meter^0 * second^0 Shape Aspect
meter^0 * second^-1 Density Aspect
meter^1 * second^-1 Velocity Aspect
meter^1 * second^-2 Pressure Aspect
meter^2 * second^0 Area Aspect
meter^2 * second^-1 Membrane Aspect
meter^2 * second^-2 Potential Aspect
meter^3 * second^-1 Momentum Aspect
meter^3 * second^-2 Force Aspect
meter^4 * second^-2 Energy Aspect

Essays on all eleven aspects with duplicates

meter^-1 * second^0 Magnetic Aspect
Permeability and Charge Density have the same primitive units: per meter. The permeability is also Henrys per meter. Since Henry is the inductance unit and it has cancelled dimensions, that results in this Magnetic Aspect having per meter as a unit. Charge density is related to a permeable material because they both are about material concentrations. It is reasonable to lump together in a Magnetic Aspect both charge density and permeability, since both are associated with magnetism.

meter^0 * second^0 Shape Aspect
The induction coil has the shape of a helix. Its primitive units are not meters or seconds. Like Avaagadro's number, The induction has a number of loops and that number has no units.

meter^0 * second^-1 Density Aspect
Magnetic Flux Density (B)
Those three units of measure all share the same primitive dimension: per second. The density of magnetic flux is like a resistor in that both involve how fast things happen. The B flux density affects how fast an ion curves in its travels. A resistor affects how fast electrons travel on average.

meter^1 * second^-1 Velocity Aspect
This aspect has the speed of light and viscosity. Imagine connecting them in this list for this aspect:
magnetic field (H)
thermal conductivity
One can compare thermal conductivity and viscosity and expect some similarity in their geometries. The velocity of thermal conductivity is like the velocity due to viscosity. Maybe c, the speed of light is also like a viscous geometrical interaction, limiting motion due to fluid dynamics of continua. The magnetic field, H, has meters per second as its primitive dimensions. A velocity is provided by a magnetic field, but at right angles to an existing velocity going somewhere else. The magnetic field gives an ion velocity to go somewhere different, but it won't accelerate it in one direction.

meter^1 * second^-2 Pressure Aspect
These units are in this aspect of physics, from a primitive perspective:
G is Newtons gravitic constant and ke is Coulomb's electric constant for the force equation. They are defined in Old Science using a Newton, which uses a kilogram. By converting kilograms to square meters, the Big G is now known to be an acceleration in its primitive dimensions. Gravity is like a pressure and they both can cause acceleration in objects. The electric field causes acceleration of ions. Energy density is in this aspect, but comments are delayed...

meter^2 * second^0 Area Aspect
Boltzmann's Constant
Area is like a parachute and it is effective for mass and charge. Mass is the cross-section of matter, including the adjacent continuum turbulence. Charge is an area between an electron and a proton.

The meters times meters multiplication gives an area that can be appreciated as a ratio with a distance squared (R2). Newton's Law of Gravity uses that ratio or areas. The area of charge is like a sail on a sailboat: its angle is relative to a wind of continuum fluid.

The radius squared (R2) phenomenon is seen again in the Boltzmann's Constant. The units of K are meters times meters, but not as mass. That K is used in KT to get energy. That is like q in the qV energy formula. They have the same primitive units.

meter^2 * second^-1 Membrane Aspect
The two space dimensions and one time dimension make a 3D membrane. It is found in the charge and in the wave nature. The electron particle is paired to a proton by a membrane. The Weber is magnetic flux and it is a tough membrane, due to Iron's nuclear stability.
Diffusion Coefficient
Expansion Viscosity
Vector Potential A
All of those units have the same primitive dimensions. What do they have in common? The Periodic Table of Units of Measure poses a riddle...

meter^2 * second^-2 Potential Aspect
Many text books on physics describe a "potential" that is like a voltage. But authors commonly use the word potential as a more general term. Temperature is a kind of potential without preferred directions.

meter^3 * second^-1 Momentum Aspect
The parallel between mv momentum and qH "candidate-momentum" has baffled students for decades. No, qH is not momentum. Here is the difference: in The Gravity Continuum, a 3D space is involved with an area*v momentum. In The Electricity Continuum, a 2D membrane is involved instead of 3D.

meter^3 * second^-2 Force Aspect
The force of inertia is using kilograms times acceleration. But force is not just about kilograms of mass. Sometimes charges make a force. After it was realized that a kilogram is a square meter, force was liberated from composite lumpiness and force was set to its primitive dimensions: meter3 / second2.

meter^4 * second^-2 Energy Aspect
The energy formulae are shown in The Periodic Table of Duplicated : hf KT mvv qV. With kilograms obsoleted, that is a snap!

The First Law of Diffusion of Herenowium

The continuum is at rest relative to matter, where continuum contacts matter, for all directions near matter that are not radially oriented.

Herenowium is 4D continuum fluid with Laws. Herenowium is a differentiating aether.

The Second Law of Diffusion of Herenowium

Herenowium that is not in contact with matter has laminar flow around matter in all non-radial directions.

The Third Law of Diffusion of Herenowium

Diffusion is caused by a gradient of continuum which can be caused by matter shrinking space and growing time in radial directions, locally.

The Fourth Law of Diffusion of Herenowium

The gradient of Herenowium causes acceleration of matter for gravity. Acceleration equals the velocity of space flowing into a planet divided by the time flowing out of the planet. Matter that is accelerated by non-gravitic forces causes a gradient in local Herenowium. That is inertia.

The Fifth Law of Diffusion of Herenowium

The Conservation of Continuum is an interaction between matter and Herenowium. Matter is protons and neutrons. The continuum is conserved as a proton volume is transformed into about 5.13 nanoseconds. The magnitude of that space equals the magnitude of time. The main process of matter is to swap dimensions for conservation. Space is swapped for time of an equal magnitude.

5.13ns = 3.59 x 10-45 cubic meters

The Gravity Continuum has 4 dimensions and The Electricity Continuum has 4 more. Herenowium is the name of the fluid in The Gravity Continuum.
(It is pronounced here and now ee um).

Alan Folmsbee, December 20, 2015
Not copyrighted. The "periodic tables of units of measure" are placed into the public domain.

1 comment:

  1. 5.23961254 nanoseconds * c = 1.57079632 meters

    Hello Mr Folmsbee have you ever tried 5.23961254 nanoseconds?